Sunday, March 16, 2014

A tough luck building comes back in Pioneer Square



The cool thing about historic preservation is that the act of renovating buildings releases all the stories closed up in them.  As people start tearing away the exterior and interior layers covering all the supposed blemishes, the spirits of the buildings rise from the now uncovered spaces, finding their way to permitting counters, historic preservation bureaucrats, tax lawyers, the real estate sections of daily newspapers, archives holding old photos, now dusted off and posted on the Internet for all to see.  After a time, people can see most of the old stories freshly, as if brand new, a perspective that enriches the old stuff, and even reveals new material that people never knew, or that we somehow forgot. 

The stories also find their way to prospective tenants, like our company, Gallatin Public Affairs, now getting ready to move to Pioneer Square in a few weeks, to a complex of two newly renovated buildings, together called the Pacific Commercial Building, where the stories bounce around the streets as visible and animated as Casper or the Canterbury Ghost.

Located at 240 Second Avenue South, the building we will occupy, the light yellow sandstone fronted Pacific Commercial Building, is a structure with many names and is central to the story of early electricity development and distribution, to the rise of an idea about a Pacific Rim economy in the form of the first Seattle world’s fair, the Alaska Pacific Yukon Exposition in 1909.  It tells us about a time when Seattle truly became a city, tripling its size in a decade.  The narrative tells us about a Japanese businessmen who thrived in the town as did his businesses, accepted as a leader in a city that sometimes was uncomfortable with the idea of different people.  Like all stories playing out over many years, some characters in the narrative do better than others. 

University of Washington Collections
1901
First, it was the Baker Building, originally erected by Charles H.  Baker, president of the Seattle Cataract Company and built for the Snoqualmie Falls Power Company, both of which he owned.  Baker came from a wealthy Chicago family – his dad was head of the Chicago Board of Trade and a key organizer of the Columbian World’s Fair in 1893.  It is hard not to wonder if his fascination with electricity came from his father’s association with the Chicago World’s Fair.  It is an amazing fact that nearly every incandescent light bulb available then in the world was deployed in Chicago for the fair.  As a young man of just 23, he came to Seattle to work for the Seattle, Lakeshore and Eastern Railway, what we now know as the Burke Gilman Trail, after the owners of the railroad. 

Working on an extension of the SL& E that would go close by Snoqualmie Falls, he became obsessed with generating electricity at the falls.  He liked to call the falls the “wasting waterfall,” because he felt it wasn’t properly put to work.  This is an early demonstration of the different perspectives of Native Americans and early businessmen like Baker.  To the natives, the mists that rose from the collision of water and rock at the bottom of the waterfall were the souls of Native American ancestors, rising and floating above their millennial habitat. 

At Snoqualmie Falls, Baker created the first underground generating station in the world.  Keeping, it underground, incidentally, kept the the mists and souls floating about.  He built the two story Baker building in 1900 to act as an electrical substation that would receive the power generated at the falls and distribute it to the growing fleet of street cars in
University of Washington Collections
Seattle and Tacoma and ultimately to businesses and homes.  But there was no tougher game than the early electricity business.  Stone and Webster, the Boston-based electricity cartel, had taken over Seattle and owned the City Council and had helped them write franchise restrictions that effectively froze out Baker. A smear campaign in Tacoma, likely organized by Stone and Webster, kept Baker on the outside looking in there. 

Baker's substation in 1900
University of Washington Collections
His power plant built and his two story substation complete, Baker was still unable to sell much of his electricity.  For the first four months of the year 1900, Baker ran an ad in several newspapers each day for weeks.  It said:

Seattle Light! The only light!
You can’t get it!
Why?
Ask the City Engineer

If you had asked City Engineer Reginald Heber Thomson, he would have offered this answer: 

“Because I am the one who should supply electricity to Seattle.” 

Thomson is to Seattle what Robert Moses was to New York.  Just about everything hearkens back to Thomson, along with what you don’t see.  The zenith of tearing down the hills of Seattle and turning those spaces into flat land was in the Thomson era.  Lake Washington’s shoreline belongs, in large part, to Thomson.  The Magnolia Beach sewage treatment plant location is his.  He established the Port of Seattle.  If you are using it today, Thomson likely had a hand in building it long ago.

RH Thomsen
MOHAI
Thomson didn’t become City Engineer until 1892, but he was the Seattle Surveyor when the Great Fire in 1889 burned 64 acres of Seattle’s commercial center to the ground.  The many small private water companies that supplied water for fire suppression performed pathetically. The city burned while they dribbled. Thomson and the rest of the city’s leadership decided to keep fire safety and drinking water in their own hands and promptly offered up the idea of Seattle owning its own water system, first from Lake Washington and Lake Union and culminating in the development of the Cedar River 38 miles east of Seattle.  The Cedar was approved in 1895 and finished in 1900.  A Seattle–owned dam and powerhouse on the Cedar was approved in 1902 and the new municipal utility started delivering electricity in 1905.

Electricity was really expensive then.  Stone and Webster’s Seattle Electric Company began selling it for 20 cents/kwh for the first two hours of use, then declining to 12.5 cents/kwh as usage continued for the rest of the day.  When Seattle’s municipal utility came on line, it charged 8.5 cents for the first 20 kwh, then 7.5 for the next 20 kwh, then 4.5 cents for the next 20.  Within a year or two, Stone and Webster was charging about the same.  Thirty years later, when President Roosevelt was advocating publicly-owned electricity, he hearkened back to Seattle’s experience, calling publicly-owned power “the yardstick by which prices are set.”  The two companies competed head to head for nearly 50 years, Stone and Webster poles on one side of the street, the municipal utility on the other side.

Charles Baker
Argus
The year 1903 started out optimistically for Baker.  He announced in February that he was adding three floors to the Baker Building.  He had come to believe it was not suitable for a substation, but rather as office space for the booming city.  But then, Baker’s Snoqualmie generating plant caught fire – something Baker attributed to arson --and ruined much of his equipment.  Then his father died.  Baker had built the Snoqualmie Plant with money loaned to him by his father, but there was no paperwork and his father left no will.  Baker was frozen out once again.  Stone and Webster bought the power plant from the estate and George Stetson, a timber baron, bought the Baker Building, now five stories tall, from the lawyers in 1906.  Baker left for Florida, defeated, where he sold real estate.  His wife and three children remained in Seattle.

One of Baker’s tenants was Masajiro Furuya, among the most successful businessmen in the town and deeply respected.  Serious, a devout Methodist, he was a quiet leader in not only the Japanese community, but in the business community generally.

UW Collections
After teaching and service in the Japanese Army, where he was exposed to the sophistication of Tokyo, Furuya contemplated coming to America. A thoughtful guy, he knew that without a skill, he would never be more than a laborer in America, so he apprenticed himself to a tailor in Japan.  Arriving in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1890, he spent a month in Seattle, then three months in Chicago and six months in St.  Louis. Seattle was his choice.  He came back in 1892 and opened a grocery store at Third and Yesler which also housed his tailoring business.

He was one of the first tenants of the Baker Building when it opened in 1900, occupying a storefront that faced out to both
Furuya's Store in 1900
University of Washington Collections
Second Avenue on one side and just to the left of the main entrance on the other.  The local Japanese Association had a large room just above Furuya on the second floor.  In 1900, there would have been nearly 4,000 Japanese living in Seattle. 

In the Baker Building, Furuya’s business was changing and growing.  He imported Japanese art objects, displaying them in the expanding downtown north of Pioneer Square at Second and Columbia.  He begin serving the construction industry in the northwest, bringing in Japanese labor as a labor contractor for the large projects that kept the boom going.  He created a sales force to sell Japanese goods to a
growing Japanese population across the western US on farms and in logging camps.  He provided foodstuffs to the Japanese military as Russia and Japan headed into a conflict in the Pacific that the Japanese would handily win.  His success made him someone a person could go to for a loan and he sometimes provided informal banking services to the Japanese businesses clustered around the Baker Building and on north up Jackson Street. 

The historian Ron Takaki writes that part of this informal banking was holding in his safe the money earned by Japanese prostitutes.  Takaki says there were three “Pink Hotels” in the area, what some called “The Main Street District,” and others called "Japan Town."  The women would bring the money to him for safekeeping but, given their fragile existence, some never returned to claim their earnings.

Furuya’s timing in Seattle could not have been better.  The decade between 1900 and 1910 saw Seattle’s population triple to nearly 240,000 people.  The Japanese population in Seattle doubled, to nearly 9,000.  By 1920, there were 100,000 Japanese in the western US, many of them business owners and farmers who wanted to buy familiar food and who needed financial services that they sometimes could not get from traditional white-owned banks.

Furuya’s growing businesses took more and more of the building.  In 1905, he established the Oriental American Bank, and in 1907 the Japanese Commercial Bank.  The latter bank, funded with $50,000, grew to deposits of $3,000,000 in just over ten years and was extremely profitable. 

Furuya employees at main entrance, perhaps 1913
University of Washington Collections
There were no vacations at Mr. Furuya’s enterprise.  There was one uniform for men – a black suit, called by the employees a Furuya suit, set off by a black tie.  The day started seriously and stayed there.  Some 50 employees would gather around Mr.  Furuya who would give an inspirational talk about Christian values and the ethical and frugal life.  Sometimes the employees would read verses from the bible.  The work day was early to late.  Some of the employees lived with the Furuya family in the ground floor of their spare, rental house on 8th Avenue, a street where the Seattle Housing Authority's Yesler Terrace now stands.  There was a cook and a servant.  They had two girls who went to Seattle public schools, Masa and Kimi.  Both of whom graduated from the University of Washington.

He had two vices.  He was an unapologetic public nose picker, according to Takaki.  He would gather material from his nose while listening to someone speak, roll it into a manageable sphere, and flick it into oblivion using his thumb and forefinger.  His employees, out of earshot and eyeshot, more likely in a different state, laughed and called these “snot shots.”  The second vice was a lovely vacation home and Japanese garden on Bainbridge Island, built in 1905.  Like any Furuya project, it got big in a hurry.

Furuya House on Bainbridge Island, 1915
Likely an employee picnic
On six acres, it had a large greenhouse and several hot houses along 300 feet of waterfront looking across Port Orchard Bay.  He cultivated 5000 pots of lilies, chrysanthemums , cucumbers, tomatoes, had a large pond with a stone bridge passing over the cruising Koi.  All the trees and flowers came from Japan and it became famous in the Japanese Community.  He shared the house with his community and employees. 

Furuya knew that his success in the community depended on his relationships with the white community.  While his banking and grocery operations were focused on Japanese, his Japanese arts shop in the Chapin Building relied mostly on white customers.  While stern, his Christian faith did not close him down to others, but rather opened him up to many people in the community.  He made his Bainbridge Island place available to organizations of Japanese who celebrated which area in Japan they were from as well as to University of Washington students.  He and two other Seattle businessmen, Tetsuo Takahashi and Tatsuya Arai, created a partnership that led to a major exhibit at the Alaska Yukon Pacific Expostion called the ‘streets of Tokio.' Though it was taken up as a civic and cultural responsibility by the three, they made money on the project. 

Streets of Tokio
Frank Newell
UW Collections
The whole idea of the Pacific Rim as a geo-economic zone was growing, especially after the Japanese became a major power and soundly defeated the Russian Navy in the Russo-Japanese War.  Hundreds of Japanese came together in the Japanese Association Hall in 1905 at the Baker Building to celebrate the victory.  A Mr. Hattori, an advisor at Furuya’s company and a Princeton graduate, was a sought after speaker on the topic of the role of Japan and the significance of the Pacific Rim, particularly after it became known that Admiral Togo, the Admiral of the victorious Japanese fleet, was a friend of Hattori and wrote him a letter soon after he had crushed the Russians at Port Arthur.

While on a business trip to Japan in 1908, Furuya heard that the University of Washington baseball team was in the country playing, as the Seattle Daily Times described it, “the best nines of the Flowery Kingdom.”  This was a reciprocal visit after a 1905 tour of the US by Waseda, the top college in Japan, sponsored by Leland Stanford.  The Japanese teams, to the astonishment of a Daily Times reporter, played the game of baseball in complete silence.  Furuya hosted a visit by the UW team to Nikko, the great national park and shrine in Japan that is now a World Heritage Site. 

“You can never know Japan if you do not see Nikko,” he told the team at a banquet he threw for them. 

Furuya purchased the building in 1917 from Stetson.  By now, he was thoroughly establishment in Seattle, a respected member of the Chamber of Commerce and an honorary member of the United States Chamber.  A 1920 port directory described his offices stretching across the Pacific Rim – Seattle, Portland, Vancouver, British Columbia, Tokyo and Kobe. 

While the twenties were strong financial years for Furuya, there was a troubling cast to the decade, demonstrated by the tone of a congressional hearing held in Seattle in the Summer of 1920.

White River Valley Museum
Between 1890 and 1920 nearly 19,000,000 immigrants came to America, most of them at the low end of the class scale.  While Japanese immigrant numbers were nowhere near that volume – in 1920 they represented just over 100,000 on the west coast with 17,500 in Washington state and another 9,000 in Oregon.  However, many of them, like Furuya, were well up the class ladder and they had established several thousand Japanese businesses across the west and Japanese were farming considerable acreages to the detriment, some said, of Americans who were citizens, as well as returning veterans from World War I.

At the hearings, a Furuya manager, who also headed the Japanese Association, laid out the economic reach of the Japanese community – Japanese had ten percent of the dairies producing 18% of King County’s milk.  Japanese were 60% of the Public Market vendors. There were 282 hotels run by Japanese – a third of Seattle’s hotel rooms -- 186 grocery stores out of a thousand, 44 laundries, 73 restaurants and 23 shoe stores.  There were 806 Japanese children in elementary schools and 87 in High School.

The Anti-Japanese League President, businessman and publisher Miller Freeman, argued that the Japanese were depriving white Washingtonians of their rights and future opportunities.  Freeman saw the Japanese in the context not only local economics, but also in the politics of the Pacific Rim:

“To-day, in my opinion, the Japanese of our country look upon the Pacific Coast really as nothing more than a colony of Japan, and the whites as a subject race."

Congressman Isaac Siegal of New York questioned Jimmy Sakamoto, an American born high schooler testifying at the hearing, about his basic loyalties.  Did he not have an obligation to the Emperor to serve in the Japanese military after his 17th year?  No, Sakamoto thought he should join the American military if needed, and if they would have him.

Furuya with his wife, Hatsu and daughter Masa,
about 1907.  Masa became an excellent violinist.
UW Libraries
In June of 1928, Furuya gave one third of the shares he owned in his various companies, worth $300,000, to his 100 employees, something he saw as a capstone to his career and a marker of his Christian values.  Three years later, in 1931, he was broke, the Pacific Commercial Bank swept away by The Great Depression and shuttered, the savings of the Japanese community in Seattle swept away with it.  Indeed, every Japanese bank in the country failed within a few years of 1931.

Furuya tried to start again in Los Angeles, selling books.  His ventures failing, viewed with suspicion by his own community, he moved to Yokohama, his home town, where he lived simply in a small house and died in 1938.  The obituary in the Seattle Times mentioned his two daughters, successful University of Washington graduates who married successful University of Washington men, and were living in the Midwest and East, but did not mention Hatsu, his wife.

During World War II and after, the building was held by the Lutheran Compass Mission until purchased by the Masin Family in 1948.  The Masins were another immigrant family, from Latvia, and the patriarch ran a grocery store a few blocks east of Furuya’s building.  Purchasing a train car load of damaged furniture got him into the furniture business and he purchased the building from the Lutheran Compass Mission to set up a store.  His greatest generation son, Ben, became the leader of the company after returning from the Pacific where he served as a Marine Corpsman, wading ashore at Guadacanal, Guam and Bougainville.

Building in 1956
City of Seattle
Their building was tested right away by the 1949 Earthquake, still the strongest to hit the region since settlement.  It killed eight people and seriously injured many others. It also damaged the top two floors of the building just purchased by the Masins, breaking a gas line and causing a fire.  Pioneer Square now was in a down cycle and the repairs were expensive.  Losing a couple of floors wasn’t the worst thing that could happen to the family enterprise.  They, and some others in the district, removed upper floors. In 50 years, the building had gone from two floors to five floors and now back to three. 


Hotel Seattle
University of Washington Collections
The center of Seattle’s business district had moved North by then and Pioneer Square was targeted for parking.  The Occidental Hotel, later called the Seattle Hotel and owned by the Kubota family, was a flatiron building in front of the Smith Tower. In 1961 it had been abandoned and became the site of the sinking ship parking garage.  The sinking ship became a symbol for the coming demise of Pioneer Square.  Planning for the new multi-purpose Kingdome assumed large volumes of parking spaces would be needed nearby and suburban flight was an additional threat, commuters needing somewhere to put their automobiles during the work day. 

Ben Masin became the business leader of a coalition that teamed with Mayor Wes Uhlman to save Pioneer Square.  They fashioned an historic district and stopped the carnage.  For a time, Pioneer Square was the darling of the banks and projects had not only political but financial support.  The Masins sold the building in 2007 to a young Spokane developer, Rob Brewster and his partner, entrepreneur Michael Goldfarb.  Their plan was to add back the two stories and build out the interiors of the Corgiat and Furuya Buildings as office space.

Their timing could not have been worse.  By 2010, everything stopped when US Bank decided against releasing any more funds to the project.  It was a blow both to the project and a further blow to Pioneer Square.  Then, Mr. Goldfarb died.


At least it was the bottom.  Pioneer Square’s fortunes began to improve.  The housing development of the North Parking Lot in 2013 and 2014 is adding several thousand new residents in more than 700 units.  Adding new residents on Pioneer Square streets is creating demand for restaurants and other retail services. Gamers have flocked to Pioneer Square office space.  One of the largest transit hubs in the country is in Pioneer Square and is a major convenience for commuters.  Well over half the people working downtown use transit.  

The tearing down of the Alaska Way Viaduct means a new waterfront for Seattle and Pioneer Square's will have its own beach and, likely, more housing.  Today, Pioneer Square is white hot. 

Money likes white hot.  A successor company to the real estate trust formed in 1989 after the sale of shipping giant Holland America Line purchased the loan from US Bank in 2013 and provided the funds to Mr. Brewster to finish the project.  In twenty years since his coming to Seattle, it is the first loan the real estate firm HAL has made in Pioneer Square.


So, that’s the place our company is headed, to a fourth floor spot with arched windows overlooking Waterfall Park, a place dedicated to the one-time Irish immigrants who started a little delivery company and called it United Parcel Service.  



It is a building that has many stories, and some of them even have happy endings.


Thursday, February 6, 2014

You bet it was a hard trip. The Hampson family goes to Velasco, Texas from Colorado.

In 1894, my great grandfather read about a big federal project planned for
Thomas Jefferson Hampson
at about 40 years
Velasco, Texas, a dredging and construction project that called out loudly to him. 
He decided to get out of the mining business high up in the Rocky Mountains where he had barely made a living and into the tugboat captain business in the Gulf of Mexico where he made some money after his service in the Civil War. 

The fact is, he had no choices in the face of the Panic of 1893 and the hard blows it landed to his life and family in Colorado.  Mining, cutting wood, making bricks, farming. Nothing really delivered for his growing family. His choice was to pack it all up and get to Texas at the estuary of the Brazos River, now known as Freeport.  

Forty years later, he would have driven a Model T to California.  In 1894, he put everything he had into two wagons, a buckboard and a covered wagon pulled by six horses, and set out for Velasco, 1380 miles away. Hampson's son, Thomas Jefferson Hampson, Jr., my grandfather, was then just 21 years old and wrote a diary about the trip.  I've been reading the diary in the hope of getting to know him a bit better than when, as a 12 year old boy, I listened to his scratchy voice saying things to my Mom I didn't quite get.  As I think about it, I also find it very special to think I actually knew someone who crossed the country behind teams of horses.  

Economic opportunity for the Hampson family was then defined north and south -- the Gulf and the Rockies.  The money he made when he and his brother had twenty employees and three boats, the Ruth Elma, the Belle Darlington and Mary Louise, he lost when he followed the gold high up in the Rockies in Garfield County.  

You’ve met the Civil War soldier Thomas Jefferson Hampson in this blog before. He joined the Union Army right after Fort Sumter and fought in its first major battle in the western theater, Wilson’s Creek in Southwest Missouri, where he was left for dead, showed some eye movement to the burial crew and spent several months in a Confederate prison in Greene County, Missouri.  When he escaped the prison a few months later after Union troops began pushing the Rebels out of Southwestern Missouri, he weighed 80 pounds, half the body weight he carried when he enlisted.

He recovered, put his weight back on at his home in Covington, Kentucky, across the river from Cincinnati,  and rejoined the army, serving for an additional three years in an engineering battalion, fighting at First and Second Memphis, Second Franklin, Vicksburg, Shiloh.

My grandfather at about 25
The manifest for the Velasco trip spanned three generations.  Epenetus Foster Hampson, the senior Hampson’s mother, was 83.  TJ senior was now 53.  His wife, Alice Knapp Hampson, was 45.  My grandfather was 21, his brother Charles Foster Hampson, was 19.  Chester Knapp Hampson was 17.  Ralph Leander Hampson was 13, Anna Ruby Hampson was 6 and the youngest, Harry Gordon, was 3.  There was a dog, too, though no one wrote down its name. 

Four people who made the trip wrote about it.  My grandfather’s diary is one document.  His brother Charlie also kept a diary.  TJ Senior wrote a memoir toward the end of his life that included reflections on the Velasco trip though almost no detail.  And little Harry wrote a lengthy poem, an epic poem, really, hundreds of stanzas that he called “Resume.”  It is about the life of the family, updating it as new generations were born and older ones passed, tapping out the verses on an old Smith Corona until he died.  I have three of the four.  Only Charlie’s diary is missing.

The Velasco trip was famous in the Hampson family.  But as a disaster.   No port was built.  They could find little work in Velasco.  The kids picked up driftwood and cut it for sale to get food.  TJ Senior went up river and worked in a coal mine in East St. Louis to replenish their tiny grubstake and nearly lost his life.  They returned to Colorado in less than two years, getting out just ahead of the Galveston Hurricane that destroyed everything there and would have destroyed them.

Going back and forth to the Gulf of Mexico and to the Rockies was costly to the Hampson family.  Their first child, Richard Leander, died of a fever at six years in McKinney, Texas while Hampson was working on his tug boats.  Charles Foster, apparently fearless around dynamite, never quite got out of the hole on a Bonanza rock face where he’d placed a bundle of it.   Epenetus died shortly after they arrived in Velasco and was buried where the family camped out.  They could not afford a funeral. 

My grandfather's diary is hardly chatty. Nearly always, he mentions the weather, the condition of the roads, rabbits, quail or rattlesnakes killed, miles traveled and whether the water is good or not.  Sometimes he writes down a notable site -- the gallows they drove past in Seven Rivers, New Mexico.  He's spare in showing his sense of humor, though it is clearly there.  Originally, I began simply following the day’s journey on a map, marking where they set up camp.  But I soon began investigating issues raised in the diary.  “Do sheep kill rattlesnakes?”  “What battle played out here?”  “Why is the road swampy?”  “Why is the water bad?”  “Who owned a ranch they stopped at and what was the family like?”  Just doing a little research, I'd find amazing questions, like “Why are there so many alligators in Mosca, Colorado?”  Mostly, I learned several things about my grandfather from the text.  Among them, he likes his sleep. The very first entry establishes that:

Sunday, September 9.  “Left Salida at 5:45 AM.  Ouch!”

Many years later, Harry Hampson put the day they left Colorado into verse with his always ironic touch:

Upon that ninth September day
The day of that memorable start
But yet, the prospect of such a trip,
A trip by wagon train,
Was quite appealing to most all hands
Trusting, twas not in vain.

Out thru the gate and across the bridge
Of the little Arkansas,
Covered wagon and buckboard rolled.
And through San Luis Valley we rolled
Our way to Texas.
And behind us, all that hidden gold.

Wednesday, Sept 12th - Broke camp south of Dunne at 8:45, arrived at Garrison 10 a.m.  Reached Mosca, a milling town, at 12:40 and ate dinner here.  Killed 2 rabbits.  Met our friend, Doc Monahan, an old timer, who was also leaving the country.  He rode all afternoon with us, went into camp on banks of the Rio Grande River at Alamosa 7 p.m.  Delayed in the morning by having to hunt for our horses and also heavy roads  (23 miles). 

Mosca refers to a mountain pass nearby, named after a Spanish Explorer, but it also exists as a reminder of how the family business can evolve in ways never anticipated, something a bit like the Hampson ancestors.  A geothermal spring provided warm water and an idea for Erwin and Lynne Young, who came along to Mosca eighty years after the Hampsons.  In 1977, they decided to raise Tilapia and African Perch in the warm ponds around their place.  In 1987, they read that alligators are very effective disposing of fish processing wastes and purchased 100 one year old animals.  Soon, people wanted to see the gators and they opened the place to the public in 1990.  They now take in reptiles who have been abused or can no longer be cared for in residences.  Their purpose is to make people aware of the dangers of raising reptiles in a home setting.  The farm is home to “Gatorfest” on the first weekend of August where you can observe a Gator Rodeo and Roundup. 

The reference to “heavy roads” is because of the Great Sand Dunes National Park, the tallest sand dunes in North America, rising 750 feet above the valley floor.  They have been building for 400,000 years or more.  The sand is deposited in the eastern part of the valley where the strong winds from the west finally lay down and release the sand they carry.

The party continues on South past Mosca and encounters several pedestrian disappointments.   They leave a rifle here, an axe there.  They ride into Santa Fe past a brand new reservoir.  Today, the river there is nearly restored.  The city’s first water reservoir, a privately built affair called the Stone Dam, was built 13 years before the Hampson family passed through.  The new dam he saw was completed in 1894, a publicly owned dam called Two Mile Dam.  The Stone Dam filled in with sediment during a massive flood in 1904, but Two Mile held up.  Exactly 100 years after its construction it is now gone, removed.  How amazed they would be to see it today.  “How do you make a reservoir disappear?”
Confederate drummer before Glorieta Pass
Sunday, Sept 23rd - Broke camp at 8:30 at Santa Fe.  Got on the wrong road and had to turn back.   In passing under a R.R. trestle, we damaged our wagon top.  Broke some bows and tore canvas some.  Concluded the bridge was too low or wagon top too high.  Ate dinner 12 miles from Santa Fe.   Killed one rattlesnake, 5 rattles and a button.  Arrived at the Plaza of Gallisteo at 6:15  Went into camp in the barnyard of Mr. Davis, owner of the Big Rancho there in Gallisteo.  (24 miles).
More than 30 years before the Hampsons camped in the Big Rancho, the Confederates made a push to cut off the western part of the United States and did surprisingly well, taking Santa Fe and Albuquerque and forcing the abandonment of Fort Bliss. TJ Hampson senior had fought in the west and would have talked about the Confederate initiative as the wagons banged along the same path taken by 2500 Confederates until they were finally defeated at Glorieta Pass, a few miles up the road.
Wednesday, Sept 26th - Broke camp at Antelope Springs at 9:30  Ate dinner at the Salt  Lakes.  Did not camp until 8 to find water for horses but failed as usual.  Another dry camp.  Oh! For some good old Colorado water.  Weather good.  Roads good (22 miles).
As they approached Roswell, New Mexico, the slow travel contributes to an understanding of how thin their existence on the road was and why they were constantly hunting.
Friday, Oct 5th- Weather cloudy.  Broke camp at 9:15.  Traveled right on through to Roswell without a stop for dinner for we had nothing to eat, so it was useless to stop, but hard on the horses! 
Saturday, Oct.  6th.  Everyone seemed to be armed, a tough, wild town as Pecos Valley Railroad was just building into Roswell and first train got in today.  Ate dinner at some alkali wells.  Could not drink the water so we drank some whiskey. 
Monday, Oct 8th - Broke camp at Cottonwood Creek at 9.  Saw lots of antelope.  Arrived at Rio Penasco at 2 and ate dinner here.  Went into camp for the night at the water hole 6 miles from Rio Penasco at 6.  Weather cool.  Roads fine.  Expect to reach Eddy (now Carlsbad) tomorrow.  We are near this town of Seven Rivers where a recent murder had just taken place.  We can see from our camp the temporary scaffold used for the hanging.   (22 miles).
The hanging took place three weeks before they observed the scaffold.  The murderer was James Barrett, a small time criminal whose drinking kept him in enough trouble that he had to leave his home in Texas.  In New Mexico, he lived in a tent city for railroad workers in a place now covered by a reservoir.  Barrett was a violent drunk and killed two fellow workers as they slept in late July of 1893 by shooting them with a shotgun. 
Sheriff Kemp
Barrett’s last words were a kind of crude pun, in which he told the crowd, a thousand or thereabouts, that he was going to play a trick on Sheriff Dave Kemp who had told him that he would die with his boots on.  Barrett took his boots off!  Barrett also asked to be buried face down, a request the Sheriff denied.  It was the last legal hanging in New Mexico, but certainly not the last hanging.  The sheriff said he felt bad for Barrett and gave him some whiskey before the hanging, but regretted the kindness later.
What a violent culture lived in those tiny towns in the mountains of New Mexico.  In 1988, an irrigation project called Brantley Dam was scheduled to flood the old town site and its cemetery.  There were 55 skeletons in the cemetery and they were exhumed and examined by forensic experts and scientists.  Of 15 men between 18 and 45 buried there, ten had died violently in the community’s short frontier life.
Wednesday, October 10.  Water scarce and much alkali.  We intend to lay over here until we can find out the best route and get some clothes washed.  Water hard.  Weather good.  Roads rough. (5 miles)
One of the toughest pulls of the trip was ahead of them, the great, sandy wastes called “The Staked Plains.”  Some days they made a handful of miles and had to double up the horses and pull just one wagon at a time.  One night, the 13 year old Chester, was left overnight in the buckboard as the horses were too tired to go back and get him. 
Saturday, Oct 13th - Broke camp at 8 AM.  Roads sandy and rough.  Very heavy pull and hard on our poor animals.  SAND! SAND!  Ate dinner near a waterhole 12:30.  Killed 2 rattlers and 2 rabbits.  Saw some quail.  Went into camp for the night near a salt lake.  The great Llanno Estacada, UGH !   Water no good.  We have the whisky handy for this part of the trip.  It will suffer.  With all the snakes and alkali and saline water.  Weather nice.  Roads awful or trails.  I call ‘em.  Can’t see any roads sometimes.  (17 miles)
On October 18th, they crossed the border into Texas in the hands of two sheep ranchers.  They see no more rattlesnakes since the great herds of sheep being driven to ports in Texas have killed all the rattlesnakes along the trail.  In the first days of the Staked Hills, my grandfather writes of killing four or five rattlesnakes a day.  Once in sheep country, they saw none.
Friday, Oct 26th - Broke camp at 8:30.  We un-trailed the wagons which we had trailed the past 4 days on account such heavy, sandy roads.  Ate dinner at a waterhole 17 miles from Midland, Texas.  Reached Midland (the city of wind mills) at 4.  Bought some groceries and went into camp one mile east of town in a pasture near the Texas Pacific Railroad.  Roads hard and sandy.  (13 miles)
A great many windmills were pulling water out of the great Ogallala Aquifer underneath several states in the Midwest, including the Texas town of Midland.  The Eclipse, one of the top brands in the world until after World War I, was everywhere, especially in the windy plains the Hampsons were crossing at the end of October, 1894.
The Eclipse was the beginning of the Ogallala Aquifer's troubling story.  Among the world’s largest, it has lost half of the 12 million years of rain water that originally filled it up.  Many farmers there believe that they have 20 years of water left.
A reality of travel then was the whereabouts and health of the animals who pulled all the weight.  Hampson documents four days that ended bad for ‘Old Charlie.’
Tuesday, Oct 30th - Very cold night, heavy frost.  Had to hunt for old Charlie who had wandered away the evening before.  Found him about 4 miles from our camp.  Broke camp at 9:45.  Reached an alkali wind mill about 2 miles from camp.  Water too bad to drink (drank whiskey).  Had to go 7 miles further to get water.  Arrived at Big Springs at 3.  Made camp.  (11 miles)  
Thursday, Nov 1st - Broke camp at 9:30.  Watered part of the stock at a waterhole, short distance from camp.  Old Charlie got stuck in the mud and fell down.  Had to pull him out.  Killed 3 rabbits.  Ate dinner near a wind mill.  Went into camp on the Concho Creek 8 miles from Sterling.  Weather very windy.  (20 miles)
Friday, Nov 2nd - Broke camp at 10.  Delayed in hunting for pecans.  Papa, Mamma and grandmother all sick.  Left old Charlie to rustle for himself.  Was too old to travel further.  Arrived at Sterling at 1.  Ate dinner below town.  Went into camp for the night on Concho Creek., 8 miles from Sterling.  Weather cool and clear.  Killed 2 rabbits.  (16 miles)
Sunday, Nov 4th - Spent most of the afternoon gathering pecans.  Broke camp at 11.  Did not make any stop for dinner.  Went into camp for the night on Concho Creek in Mr. Shields’ pasture about two miles from city of San Angelo.  Weather cool and clear.  Roads good.  Killed 2 rabbits.  Mr. Shields, sheriff of Tom Green Co., asked Dad to work for him for re-election in Tuesday’s election.  Dad did and Shields was elected.  (16 miles)
Reading about my great grandfather, I get the impression he was an easy talker.  I can see him arranging for space in Mr.  Shields’ pasture, and then, after hearing that Mr. Shields was also running for sheriff after three terms as hide and animal inspector for the county, my great grandfather  lets it drop that he had been elected mayor of a small town in Garfield County, Colorado and knew a thing or two about politics and frontier justice.  Shields then lets it drop that he could use a little help on election day and so the animals picked up an extra day or two of rest.
Tom Ketchum on the gallows
San Angelo was the home of Tom Ketchum, sometimes a cowboy but also a prolific train robber, then a capital crime in Texas.  Shields’ first arrest as sheriff was of Ketchum and it was good that he confronted him early in his career because Ketchum became a criminal who killed people without obvious remorse.  Fortunately, Ketchum was hung in an adjacent county before he became Shields’ last arrest.
On election day, the Hampson wagons made just three miles. 
Tuesday, Nov 13th – Broke camp at 9:30.  Arrived at Pontotoc at 11:30.  Ate dinner 3 miles from the town at Mr. Graham’s farm.  Went into camp at 5.  Weather warm.  Roads rough and sandy.  Getting into pecan country now.  (12 miles)
Pontotoc, Texas
Not only pecan country, but wine country as well.  The German Emigration Company, an institution formed in Germany for the purpose of colonizing in the new world had focused first on the Republic of Texas.  The company imported seven thousand Germans to Texas between 1840 and 1847, most of them to the lovely Texas Hill Country North and West of Austin.
In 1872, they began growing grapes and making wine in Pontotoc.  A series of epidemics nearly wiped out the residents of the town by the time the Hampson wagons rolled through and there were fires too.  A Texas family is growing grapes and making wine there today, though it is a wine few Germans then had ever heard of – Temperanillo.
Tuesday, Nov 20th – Broke camp at 9.  Arrived at Oatmanville at 11:30.  Ate dinner one mile from the town.  Arrived at Austin, the state’s capital, at 5.  Went into camp on the banks of the Colorado River.  Went uptown and got the mail, including dad’s pension check.  Weather fair, roads rough .  (15 miles)
Hampson was awarded a pension in 1877 for the injuries he sustained during his Civil War service.  In that year, Hampson and 114,000 Civil War veterans received their new pensions.  There are some estimates that as much as 40% of the federal budget at the turn of the century was comprised of pension benefits to veterans and their survivors, most from the Civil War.  A huge veterans organization, The Grand Army of the Republic, was in place at the time and comprised some 400,000 members devoted to veterans’ issues.  The elder Hampson was an enthusiastic member of the organization. 
There were many different levels of pension payments.   In 1894, Hampson may have been receiving $15-$20/month, worth about $500 dollars a month today.
Thursday, Nov 29th – Thanksgiving day, but no pumpkin pies?  Broke camp on Johnson’s Farm at 9:15.  Arrived at Gonzales at 11.  Had two of our horses shod.  Went into camp for the night on the banks of the Guadaloupe River, one mile from Gonzales.  Expect to stop here for awhile and make future arrangements for the trip.  Weather warm, roads good. (16 miles)
It’s unclear what other arrangements were, but the Hampsons certainly decided to enhance their grubstake by picking a little cotton.  Over the next week, the family picked 2,000 pounds of cotton, then worth just under two cents a pound.  They would take the proceeds, about 36 dollars, into Velasco, their last stop.
Friday, Dec 21, 1894 – Broke camp at 9:15.  Arrived at the San Bernard River at 10:30.  Ate dinner in a large pasture 7 miles from camp.  Arrived at VELASCO TEXAS on the banks of the Brazos River at 5.  Weather good, roads muddy and rough. (15 miles)  This completing our long and memorable journey of 1380 miles.
Years later, Harry Hampson recalled the ambivalence of the moment with a rhyme from his poem. 

Upon arriving the river Brazos,
The site of the harbor proposed,
At the little village of Velasco
Where millions of mosquitoes reposed.
We met not a glorious outlook
Living conditions looked slim,
Nevertheless, here we are,
Sort of wondering why we came.

Hampson’s Memoir, unfortunately, shuts down in 1870 when he has the tugboats and the good life along Pensacola Bay.  But he was writing his account of things in the 1920s so he had the ability to look back at what was nearly the whole of his life and that of his family:

Hampson Bros and Valdez wagon at the new store
in Rifle, Colorado.  My grandfather holds the reins.
Well, to sum it all up; on one hand, financially, we have not been a success, and many a bitter disappointment has come to us.  That is all down on one side of life’s ledger; on the side, we can show a family of good, true and dutiful children.  Children that any parent could be proud of; so the books will balance, and we will let it go at that and be satisfied.

His children – and his sunny disposition -- were clearly his salvation.  His son Thomas, my grandfather, started working at a small grocery store in Velasco because he so hated chopping wood.  He convinced the store owner to open a store back in Colorado, in Grand Junction.  When they turned the wagons around in 1896 and headed back up the way they came, they had a place to go and a living to make.  


(L to R)  Anna Ruby, Harry, Unknown Boy and Lida Valdez
Soon there was a new partner, John Valdez, a Spaniard who’d actually found a bit of gold in the Rockies. The partnership would open three grocery stores– one in Grand Junction, one in Rifle and one in Salida, each managed by a different Hampson boy. Leander married the Valdez daughter, Lida, providing all the elements of a happy ending to such an arduous journey.



The full diary follows.


DIARY OF T.J. HAMPSON
SALIDA COLORADO
SEPTEMBER 9, 1894

In route to Velasco, Texas
December 21, 1894

Sunday – Sept 9, 1894  - Left Salida at 5:45 a.m. (“ouch”) that was early for us and only happened once (author’s mental note).  Reached Poncha Junction at 7:15.  Arrived at summit of Poncha Pass at 1:15.  Met there, our old friend Titus P. Lewis who had arrived there on a train to have a last talk with us and to bid us goodbye.  Bless the old man’s heart; it warmed us toward our friend (a real one) a lot.  Rained all afternoon and we went onto camp at Round Hill at 3 p.m. (17 miles).  Over 9000’, large rift valley

Monday, Sept 10th - Broke camp at 9 a.m.  Reached Villa Grove at 1:30., ate dinner.  Afternoon killed 3 rabbits.  Did not stop for night camp until 8 p.m. on account of lack of good water.  Went into camp at an artesian well on a big San Louis Valley Ranch.   Was nice today after the big rain of the day and night before (25 miles).

Tuesday, Sept 11th- Broke camp at Artesian Well Ranch at 9 a.m.  Arrived at Moffat at 1:30.  Ate dinner at the old abandoned ranch with an artesian well on it.  In the Afternoon killed 5 rabbits.  West into camp 3 miles south of Dunne (San Louis Valley) at 7 o’clock.  Roads swampy and bad (20 miles). 

Wednesday, Sept 12th - Broke camp south of Dunne at 8:45, arrived at Garrison 10 a.m.  Reached Mosca, a milling town, at 12:40 and ate dinner here.  Killed 2 rabbits.  Met our friend, Doc Monahan, and old timer, who was also leaving the country.  He rode all afternoon with us, went into camp on banks of the Rio Grande River at Alamosa 7 p.m.  Delayed in the morning by having to hunt for our horses and also heavy roads  (23 miles).

Thursday, Sept 13th - Doc Monahan still with us.  He wants to go to Tres Piedras, N.M. with us.  Broke camp on Rio Grande, crossed bridge into city of Alamosa, Colorado, metropolis of the San Louis Valley 9 p.m., delayed two hours getting gun repaired.  Wrote card to McK & K., Salida, at dinner at the Empire Farm.  Crossed the Alamosa River, also the La Jara River and arrived at town of La Jara at 6 p.m.  Went into camp here.  Weather very windy.  Distance traveled during the day, 15 miles.  This makes a total of 100 miles traveled so far since leaving Salida.

Friday, Sept 14th - Broke camp at La Jara at 9:15.  Ate dinner two miles north of Conejos at 5:p.m.  Tried to find a place to do some fishing and spend the night, but failed after wasting much time.  Arrived at Antonito at 6:30.  Went into camp on the north bank San Antonio Creek.  Here was our fishing.  (16 miles)

Saturday, Sept 15th - Stayed in camp all day to learn the route to Santa Fe, and to have the Winchester rifle, which we left at campground at La Jara, forwarded to us at Antonito.  Cost us $1.90 to have gun recovered and sent on to us.  Caught over 50 mountain trout near camp in San Antonito creek.  Went to Antonito 2 miles from camp in the afternoon and got our gun from Ry. Ex. Co.  Wind blew all afternoon.

Sunday, Sept 16th - Broke camp at 8 a.m.  Filled up the water barrel at the bridge over San Antonito creek to last us for the whole day.  Went half mile, and lost the road.  Found road after half hour’s hunt.  Crossed the state line from Colorado into New Mexico at 10:30  Ate dinner at Round Mountain at 12:30.  Killed two rabbits.  Reached water at 6:30 and went into camp.  Roads fair, weather nice.  (25 miles)

Monday Sept 17th - (Chrs. Birthday)  Broke camp at 9:20 in the head of Comanche Canon.  Reached Tres Piedras, N.M. at noon.  Bought some mdse. And ate dinner on the outskirts of town.  Mr. Sherlock took dinner with us.  Dr. Monahan left us at this place.  We started out after dinner expecting to reach water 15 miles out as directed but failed.  We kept traveling until 10 p.m. hoping to get water but got onto wrong road and concluded to make a dry camp without water.  Roads very rough.  Wild country.  (33 miles)
Tuesday, Sept 18th - Bought some watermelons and they were green.    Broke camp at 9 a.m.  Prepared to make a ten mile drive to water.  On the way we broke the tongue of the light spring wagon.  Fixed it up temporarily.  Lasted until we were coming down a steep hill to water when it broke again.  Ate dinner at some Mexican ranches.  After dinner with the help of a Mexican, fixed it up again.  Crossed Collienthe creek.  Went about a mile when it began to rain.  Went into camp hear the creek.  We went to the creek to get water to cook supper but creek was so high and muddy had to go without water again.  Roads wet and rough.  Kept watch over our horses all night (12 miles).
Wednesday, Sept 19th - Broke camp on collienthe (hot) creek at 9:15 a.m.   Ate dinner at Lone Rock on the creek.  Arrived at mouth of Chama River 3:30 p.m.  Went into camp at the Mexican town of Chamita at 6:30.  Bought hay, wood, produce from the Mexicans who seemed to be clever and friendly.  Roads very sandy and rough.  Kept close watch on camp and horses.  (13 miles)  
Thursday, Sept 20th- Broke camp at 10 a.m. at Chamita.  Crossed the old Rio Grande River and entered the old Indian village of San Juan at 10:30.  Recrossed the Rio Grande into Espanola at noon.  Bought some mdse. And again crossed the Rio Grande to get on the right road to Santa Fe.  Ate dinner at Mexican ranch one mile from Espanola.  Went into camp at dark on Powhacken creek near town of the same name.  (18 miles).
Friday, Sept 21st - Struck camp on Powhacken creek at 8:30.  Had to work on broken wagon tongue.  Ate dinner on Santa Fe creek.  Passed some very nice fruit tree orchards and farms on the way and arrived at Santa Fe, capital and the largest city of New  Mexico, at 5:15 p.m.   Passed the rifle range of Fort Marcy here.  Went into camp at Santa Fe on the outskirts of the city near the new reservoir for the city.  Roads sandy and hilly (18 miles).  
Saturday, Sept 22nd -  Laid over here at Santa Fe to rest up while having the blacksmith make us a new wagon tongue and to view the sights.  Also to try and locate our route to the gulf coast and lay in a supply of groceries to last us on the trip.  Saw the following:  U.S. Barracks and the Fort where two companies of the U.S. Tenth Infantry were stationed, Officers, Quarters, Capitol Building, public plaza, old Spanish ruins.  Third oldest town in U.S., settled in 1682.  Went to bed early to prepare for a early start in the morning.  
Sunday, Sept 23rd - Broke camp at 8:30 at Santa Fe.  Got on the wrong road and had to turn back.   In passing under a R.R. trestle, we damaged our wagon top.  Broke some bows and tore canvas some.  Concluded the bridge was to low or wagon top too high.  Ate dinner 12 miles from Santa Fe.   Killed one rattlesnake, 5 rattles and a button.  Arrived at the Plaza of Gallistaeons at 6:15  Went into camp in the barnyard of Mr. Davis, owner of the Big Rancho there in Gallisteons.  (24 miles).
Monday, Sept 24th - Broke camp at the Davis rancho at 9 a.m.  we left our axe at Davis’s (ouch!)  Ate dinner on the big sheep ranch 12 miles from our morning camp.  During the afternoon saw 7 antelope.  Too far off to shoot at.  Traveled until 8 p.m. to get to water but went into a dry camp without water, our second waterless camp on this trip with one camp too muddy to use.  Fine road all day and weather was fine (25 miles).
Tuesday, Sept 25th - Broke camp at 8:30 a.m.  3 mile from Stinking Springs  (bad smelling)  Watered the horses at a lake one mile from camp.  Arrived at B.S. Springs at 9:45 a.m. ate dinner 12 miles from antelope spring.  Saw plenty of ducks, and eight more antelope.  Killed 2 rabbits and 2 pigeons.   Pigeons were tame and we had permission to get them.  Arrived at Antelope Springs at 5:30.  Went into camp here.  Nice country but no good drinking water.  Roads fine (23 miles) .
Wednesday, Sept 26th - Broke camp at Antelope Springs at 9:30  Ate dinner at the Salt  Lakes.  John Sheeley and John Lovely joined our force here for a few days of  until 8 to find water for horses but failed as usual.  Another dry camp.  Oh! For some good old Colorado water.  Weather good.  Roads good (22 miles).
Thursday, Sept 27th - Saw the watering place in the morning right near camp.  Watered all the stock.  Broke camp at 8:30.  Ate dinner 8 miles from  Pinos Wells.  Arrived at Pinos Wells at 5:30 and got the 1st water since leaving camp in the morning.  Bought some mdse which was very high.  Went into camp, road and weather fine (20 miles).
Friday Sept 28th - Broke camp at 9 a.m.  Ate dinner 11 miles from the wells.  Arrived at the Guyena water hole at 6 p.m. and went into camp.  Roads good but upgrade mostly.  Weather cool and windy.  Killed 2 rabbits.  Charlie had a near accident here.  After we made camp he decided to ride one of the boys’ horses.  A nervous animal.  As Charlie got one foot in the stirrup, the horse made several jumps before Charlie could get the other leg over the horse.  John Lovely saw the situation at a glance and with lightning movement he caught Charlie’s horse before he made 40 feet.  (22 miles).
Saturday, Sept 29th - Broke camp at the Guyenas at 8:50.  Ate dinner 12 miles from the water holes.  Arrived at the Chipadaro Ranch at 6:30 and went into camp.  Got some antelope meat from the proprietor of the ranch.  Had to pay (1st time) for the water we used for the stock.  Weather very cool, roads fair.  Killed two rabbits.  (22 miles).
Sunday, Sept 30th - Broke camp at 9:15.  Charlie, Jack and myself went ahead on the saddle horses to a big lake to hunt ducks, only got one.  Ate dinner 10 miles from the famous Block Ranch, supposed to be the largest cattle ranch in New Mexico.  In the afternoon Leander lost his purse with all his wealth in it. ($0.90).  Arrived at an old vacant house on the Block Ranch at 5:30 in a cold rain storm and went into camp for the night. (20 miles)
Monday, Oct 1st - Laid over at the Block Ranch to rest up the horses and get some groceries.  Ranch rather quiet as they had just sent a big trail herd of cattle to Amarillo, Texas, nearest R.R. shipping point for them.  Weather clear and cool.  Killed 2 rabbits.  J. Sheeley went to hunt up a cousin employed by the ranch.  He was gone all day.  J Lovely and self went to ranch store to buy groceries.  Store manager gave us a check for the change.  Had to go back and get check exchanged for the mazuma (money).  Had one of the saddle horses shod.  Ranch store site of Richardson, town.
Tuesday, Oct 2nd- Broke camp at the Block ranch in the El Capitan Mountains at 8:45.  Ate dinner in salt creek canon.  Traveled until 7 in the enening to get water for stock.  Went into camp by a big pool of water in the creek bed.  Weather fine, roads very rough.  (25 miles)
Wednesday, Oct 3rd - Broke camp at 8:45.  Saw two deer.  Killed 3 rabbits, 2 ducks, and 4 quail.  Real hunting country this!  Ate dinner on salt creek.  Went into camp at Cedar Hill for the night at 5:15.  Had an early supper.  Plenty of company, it being an old camping ground.  Weather fine, roads sandy and rough. (18 miles).
Thursday, Oct 4th - Broke camp at Cedar Hill at 8:40.  Got enough wood gathered to last us 3 days use as the valley we are heading into they tell us, had no wood.  They have to haul it from 40 to 50 miles.  Arrived at some Texas ranches on Salt Creek at 12:30 and ate dinner.  Not too much too here either for our horses or ourselves.  Lovely and Sheeley at dinner with Mr. Muskra and they stayed all night for a dance.  We continued on toward Roswell and left the boys here.  Went into camp near a water hole at 6. (18 miles).
Friday, Oct 5th- Weather cloudy.  Broke camp at 9:15.  Traveled right on through to Roswell without stop for dinner for we had nothing to eat, so it was useless to stop, but hard on the horses.l  Arrived at Roswell in the Pecos Valley at 3 and went into camp on Spring River on the outskirts of town.  Went into town at once to get some grub before we could cook supper.  We got plenty and watermelons too.  Wrote card to McKenna and K.  Roads fine (17 miles).
Saturday, Oct 6th - Went up town, father and self, and everyone seemed to be armed, a tough, wild town as Pecos valley railroad was just building into Roswell and first train got in today.  Contractor’s name was Joe Hampson K.C.  Broke camp on Spring River 9 a.m.  Passed through Roswell and laid in another supply of grub to last us to Eddy.  Ate dinner at some alkali wells.  Could not drink the water so we drank some whiskey.  Arrived at the Salise 6:30 and went into camp.  Water everywhere but all very bad.  We were directed to a good drinking spring but could not find it.  Roads and weather fine. (25 miles)
Sunday, Oct 7th- Broke camp on the Salise at 9:30.  Kept close watch as this was a “hoss thief section”.  Saw hundreds of antelope during the days travel.  Tried to get in gunshot at one and chanced one shot, but it wasn’t close enough to get him.  Ate dinner below Tar Lake on Mr. Brown’s Ranch. We were directed to a spring on Cottonwood Creek for our night campsite but went too far and had to turn back about 3 miles.  Roads fair and weather good.  Went into camp at the spring at 6. (20                    
Monday, Oct 8th - Broke camp at Cottonwood Creek at 9.  Saw lots of antelope.  Arrived at Rio Penasco at 2 and ate dinner here.  Went into camp for the night at the water hole 6 miles from Rio Penasco at 6.  Weather cool.  Roads fine.  Expect to reach Eddy (now Carlsbad) tomorrow.  We are near this town of Seven Rivers where a recent murder had just taken place.  (22 miles).
Tuesday Oct 9th- Broke camp at 8:30.  Arrived at Seven Rivers at noon.  Went one mile south of town and ate dinner.  Traveled all afternoon but did not reach Eddy.  Went into camp 4 miles this side of eddy at Limestone Hill near the Pecos River.  Killed one duck and 3 rabbits.  Weather clear and warm.  Roads fine (20 miles).
Wednesday, Oct 10th - Broke camp at 10.  Before we started I shaved Dad and wanted to cut his hair but he would have none of it (I don’t blame him).  This caused the late start.  Arrived at Eddy at 11:30.  Bought some mdse. And went one mile south of town and went into camp.  Water scarce and much alkali.  We intend to lay over here until we can find out the best route and get some clothes washed.  Water hard.  Weather good.  Roads rough. (5 miles)
Thursday, Oct 11th - Laid over here at Eddy.  Weather hot in forenoon and rain in afternoon.  We can see from out camp the temporary scaffold built to hang the Seven Rivers murderers on.  It looks awesome to we kids.  Went up town in forenoon and laid in a supply of mdse and feed to last us through the Staked Plains.  Got one horse shod.  Washed up the dirty clothes.  Found out the best route to Velasco via Midland, Texas.  Prepared to get early start next morning.
Friday, Oct 12th - Broke camp at Eddy at 8:30.  Crossed the Pecos River and entered the hills South East of Eddy and headed for Midland, an estimated two week’s trek, for heavily loaded vehicles as ours, through the sand.  This part of our trip across the Staked Plains is the worst and most dreaded part of our trip through sand nearly all the way and infested with rattlesnakes.  Saw no life today, just a windmill or two and one herder’s abode.  Roads not much, terrible.  Had water with us.  Ate dinner in sand dunes hear a waterhole.  Made camp in evening at 5:30 for the night. (17 miles). 
Saturday, Oct 13th - Broke camp at 8 am  Roads sandy and rough.  Very heavy pull and hard on our poor animals.  SAND! SAND!  Ate dinner near a waterhole 12:30.  Killed 2 rattlers and 2 rabbits.  Saw some quail.  Went into camp for the night near a salt lake.  The great Llanno Estacada, UGH !   Water no good.  We have the whiskey handy for this part of the trip.  It will suffer.  With all the snakes and alkali and saline water.  Weather nice.  Roads awful or trails.  I call ‘em.  Can’t see any roads sometimes.  (17 miles)
Sunday, Oct 14th - Wild country this.   Heard some coyotes last night.  Laid over one half day to rest horses.  We all felt sorry for our animals.  Looks like we may have to double up our teams.  Make two trips on some of route through the sand.  Got some more directions as how to reach Midland from sheep man.  As we proceed further, it looks worse, these saline “wastes.”  Struck camp after dinner.  Went on around the lake and struck in through the sand hills again.  Hills covered with sheep brush or chapparal.  Finally got through this bunch of sand hills and went into camp at another salt lake at 5.  Weather nice, roads awful. (8 miles)
Monday, Oct 15th - Broke camp at 7:15.  Got on the wrong road and had to pull through an old salt lake 3 miles out of our way.  Had to double up to pull out of the lake.  Arrived at 2nd salt lake today at 11:30.  Ate dinner 2 miles further on.  Arrived at some more sand hills at about 2:30.  Went one half mile on the sand and had to double up again.   Left Chester with the spring wagon while we went on with rest of the outfit.  Heavy sand for 6 miles.  Arrived at the Hillburn Wells at the foot of the plains at about 6:30 and went into camp intending to go back after the spring wagon in the morning and see if Chet was still there.  Some heck of a day.  Mother and grandma worrying about Chet.  Killed 3 rattlers, one rabbit.  Weather cloudy, roads very heavy and very sandy.  Nothing but sand for another week or more is the outlook.  (14 miles)
Tuesday, Oct 16th - Charlie and myself left camp with all 5 horses to go back after Chet and the spring wagon.  Chet had stayed out in the sand hills all night and slept Made good time with the lighter load.  Laid over the rest of the day and prepared camp for the night at the wells.  Killed 2 rattlers and 6 rabbits.  Lee did some shooting.  Weather cloudy, roads sandy.  Nothing gained in distance.
Wednesday, Oct 17th - Broke camp at the wells at 9:45.   Accompanied by Mr. Hillburn and Mr. Faulkner who are going to pilot us as far as their eastern sheep ranch 60 miles from Midland (west).  Watered the horses at a large lake 7 miles from Hillburn’s wells.  Went two miles further and ate dinner.  Arrived at Monument Springs at 4:30.  Went 3 miles and went into camp for the night.  Roads good today for a change.  Some rocks too!  (18 miles)
Thursday, Oct 18th - Broke camp at 8 a.m.   Passed one sheep ranch and arrived at the Cowdon Ranch at 12.  Ate dinner.  Arrived at the Fox Ranch at 4 and watered the stock.  Went 5 miles further and went into camp.  3 miles of the 5 being deep sand.  Crossed the New Mex/Texas state line during the afternoon.  So now we are Texans!  Well we finally got into Texas.  Weather good, roads (with the exception of the 3 miles of sand) good.  No rattlers lately.  Mr. Hillburn stated that the sheep killed all the rattlers. (20 miles)
Friday,  Oct 19th - Broke camp at 8 in the midst of heavy sands.  Sand continued for two miles or until we reached the head of Seminole Draw.  Shot at 2 antelope but missed.  Arrived at the J.M. Wind Mills #1 at 10:30.  Ate dinner at the J. M. Wind Mills #2.  Mr.  Faulkner left us at this place.  Mr. Hillburn went on ahead.  We went into camp at some windmills 8 miles further on.  Roads good, except the sand, and weather nicer. (20 miles)
Saturday, Oct 20th- Broke camp at 8:30.  Went to Teal Wells and from there to Hillburn’s sheep ranch.  Arrived here at 11 and staid until 2:30 to find out route to Midland and get some provisions which we were badly in need of.  Went on to the Eclipse Wind Mills and went into camp 2 miles below the mill.  Killed 1 curlew and 1 crane.  Weather windy and cloudy and wet!  Roads fair (12 miles)
Sunday, Oct 21st - Laid over to rest up the horses and keep the Sabbath.  Killed 2 rabbits and one curlew.  Weather clear and warm.  Charlie doing a lot of hunting today.  Total distance traveled up to date since leaving Salida figures up to even 710 miles.  Went to bed feeling much better as worst of the plains is over.
Monday, Oct 22nd - Broke camp at 8:15.  Ate dinner in Sulphur Draw opposite some wind mills 10 miles from camp.  Had to cross the wide open spaces to get water, two miles from the road.  Went into camp for the night one mile from an alkali wind mill in order to get grass for horses.  Killed 4 quail and 3 rabbits.  Weather good, roads sandy. (20 miles)
Tuesday, Oct 23rd- Broke camp at 8:30.  Watered the stock at the alkali well.  Water very bad.  Arrived at the Five Wells Wind Mills.  Filled up our water barrel at Mill #1, awfully poor water, lots of gyp in it.  An awful drain on the fire water.  Bought some grub at 5 Wells Ranch and went one mile further and went into camp for our noonday meal.  Concluded to stay here the rest of the day and rest up the horses, so we made camp for the night.  Lots sand and more ahead of us.  Killed 4 curlew.  Roads sandy.  (8 miles)
Wedneday, Oct 24th - Broke camp at 8:30.  Had an hour’s hunt for the horses.  Arrived at the 5 Wells Wind Mill east of the sand at 11:30.  Went 2 miles more and ate dinner.  Relieved to get through the sand okay.  Traveled until 7 to find some water and grass but without much success.  Went into camp 3 miles from the U.L. Ranch.  Killed 4 curlew yesterday and got 5 rabbits today.  Weather clear and roads sandy, sandy.  (18 miles). 
Thursday, Oct 25th - Grandma’s birthday today.  83 years old.  A seven day wonder is our grandma to stand, so well, such a hard trip.  Hats off, congratulations to her on this her birthday.  Broke camp at 9.  Arrived at the U.L. Ranch at 10:30 and filled barrel and watered horses.  The first real good water, since leaving the Block Ranch.  Went 4 miles and ate dinner.  Went into camp for the night in a large pasture.  Killed 3 rabbits.  Weather warm and windy.  Roads good.  (13 miles)
Friday, Oct 26th - Broke camp at 8:30.  We untrailed the wagons which we had trailed the past 4 days on account such heavy, sandy roads.  Ate dinner dinner at a waterhole 17 miles from Midland, Texas.  Reached Midland (the city of wind mills) at 4.  Bought some groceries and went into camp one mile east of town in a pasture near the ToPac.  Railroad.  First railroad we have seen since leaving Eddy, New Mexico.  Weather cool and windy, account of wind mills.  Roads hard and sandy.  (13 miles)
Saturday, Oct 27th - Lay’ed over ½ day at Midland to get a supply of grub.  Broke camp at 12:30.  Went into camp for the night 7 miles from Stanton.  Weather is clear and much wind (for the wind mills).  Roads good.  No rabbits today.  Distance traveled for the half day, 12 miles.  All are thankful that we are across the Staked Plains.
Sunday, Oct 28th - Celebrated dad’s birthday today, 52 years old.  It was the Sabbath so we lay’ed over and rested up.  Dad got his birthday haircut in Midland and 2 big cigars.  Mother had an extra nice meal for him with real beefsteak.  The one thing to mar the day was a hard cold wind and it lasted all day and night too.  Will certainly be glad when we get away from those pesky wind mills.  Everything including our craws are fill of sand.  Killed two rabbits.
Monday, Oct 29th -  Broke camp at 9:15.  Went two miles further and ate dinner.  Reached a wind mill in the afternoon and loaded up with water.  Traveled six miles farther on and went into camp for the evening.  Killed 4 rabbits.  Weather cold.  Roads heavy.  (17 miles)
Tuesday, Oct 30th - Very cold night, heavy frost.  Had a hunt for old Charlie who had wandered away the evening before.  Found him about 4 miles from our camp.  Broke camp at 9:45.  Reached a alkali wind mill about 2 miles from camp.  Water too bad to drink (drank whiskey).  Had to go 7 miles further to get water we could drink.  Arrived at Big Springs at 3.  Made camp.  Went uptown and got grub enough to get to San Angelo.  (11 miles)  
Wednesday, Oct 31st - Very cold night, heavy frost.  Broke camp at Big Springs on Tex Pacific RR at 9:15.  Watered the stock at the same wind mill we did yesterday.  Ate dinner 6 miles from Burns place.  Reached Burns place at 4:45.  Traveled 1 miles further and went into camp.  Weather good, roads fine.  (17 miles)
Thursday, Nov 1st - Broke camp at 9:30.  Watered part of the stock at a waterhole, short distance from camp.  Old Charlie got stuck in the mud and fell down.  Had to pull him out.  Killed 3 rabbits.  Ate dinner near a wind mill.  Went into camp on the Concho Creek 8 miles from Sterling.  Weather very windy.  (20 miles)
Friday, Nov 2nd - Broke camp at 10.  Delayed in hunting for pecans.  Papa, Mamma and grandmother all sick.  Left old Charlie to rustle for himself.  Was too old to travel further.  Arrived at Sterling at 1.  Ate dinner below town.  Went into camp for the night on Concho Creek, 8 miles from Sterling.  Weather cool and clear.  Killed 2 rabbits.  (16 miles)
Saturday, Nov 3rd- Leander’s 13th birthday.  Broke camp at 9:30.  Ate dinner 9 miles from camp.  Arrived at a small Texas settlement at 4.  Traveled 4 miles farther and went into camp for the night on Concho Creek.  Weather fair, roads fair.  We are 18 miles from San Angelo.  (16 miles)
Sunday, Nov 4th - Spent most of the afternoon gathering pecans.  Broke camp at 11.  Did not make any stop for dinner.  Went into camp for the night on Concho Creek in Mr. Shields’ pasture about two miles from cith of San Angelo.  Weather cool and clear.  Roads good.  Killed 2 rabbits.  Mr. Shields, sheriff of Tom Green Co., ask Dad to work for him for re-election in Tuesday’s election.  Dad did and Shields was elected.  (16 miles)
Monday Nov 5th - Laid over in camp to rest up.  Went up town.  Stayed all day in San Angelo and got feed and groceries.  Wrote cards to MeKenna and Kerndt and Mr. H.J. Faulk of Salida.  Found out the best route via the Capitol City of Austin, Texas.  Caught 2 catfish in the Concho.  Weather good.
Tuesday, Nov 6th - Election day.  Very lively up town.  Broke camp at 9:45 for the purpose of getting better camping place to wash up all the dirty clothes (plenty of them).  Went about 2 miles from town and went into camp on the South Concho.  Dad in San Angelo electioneering.  Weather is fine.  (4 miles)
Wednesday, Nov 7th - Broke camp at San Angelo at 9:30.  Ate dinner near a Dist. Schoolhouse about 9 miles from San Angelo.  Went into camp in a large mesquite pasture at 5:30.  Wether cool and windy.  Roads good (18 miles)
Thursday, Nov 8th – Broke camp at 9:30.  Crossed Kickapoo Creek at 11.  Got on the wrong road and had to take an old road.  Lost one mile in distance by the mistake.  Went into camp near an old sheep ranch with a spring on it.  Weather clear.  Roads rocky in places (18 miles)
Friday, Nov 9th – Broke camp at 9:45.  Arrived at Eden at 1:  Got some groceries and found the route to travel.  Went the other side of town and ate dinner.  Went into camp near a small creek at 7:30.  Weather fair, roads pretty rocky.  (20 miles – total of miles traveled to date – 967)
Saturday, Nov 10th – Broke camp at 9.  Pretty good time for us (Thoughts of author).  Ate dinner 10 miles Brady.  Arrived at the town of Brady at 6 and went into camp on the north bank of Brady Creek.  Went uptown to get some feed.  Weather cold and cloudy.  Roads rocky (25 miles)
Sunday, Nov 11th – Broke camp at 10.   Stopped in town to get some groceries and find out the route via Llano.  Ate dinner on banks of San Saba River at 3.  Passed thru the small settlement of Voca at 5.  Traveled 2 miles farther and went into camp.  Weather cool and cloudy.  Roads rough and sandy.  (15 miles)
Monday, Nov 12th – Kept close watch of the horses all of last night.  Broke camp on Tiger Creek at 10.  Ate dinner 8 miles from camp.  Went into camp for the night 4 miles from Pontotoc.  Weather clear and warm.  Roads rough and sandy.  Reputation of this section bad for horse thieves.  (15 miles)
Tuesday, Nov 13th – Broke camp at 9:30.  Arrived at Pontotoc at 11:30.  Ate dinner 3 miles from the town of Mr. Graham’s farm.  Went into camp at 5.  Weather warm.  Roads rough and sandy.  Getting into pecan country now.  (12 miles)
Wednesday, Nov 14th – Broke camp at 8.  Early for us.  Ate dinner 6 miles from Llano.  Arrived at Llano at 4.  Bought some groceries and feed.  Found out the route to Austin via Birdtown.  Went into camp one mile southeast of the city.  Roads sandy and rough.  (16 miles)
Thursday,  Nov 15th – Broke camp in Llano at 8:30.  Ate dinner 8 miles from camp.  Went into camp 6 miles farther on, east of Honey Creek at 6.  Killed one rabbit and one squirrel.  Weather fair, roads rough and hilly.  The worst roads we have had on the trip.  (14 miles)
Friday, Nov 16th – Broke camp at 8:45.  Chester and Leander got lost? In hunting for the right road.  Waited one hour for them without success.  Went on into Big Sandy and ate dinner.  The boys found us at this place.  Went into camp at the Joe Smith Ranch.  Weather stormy.  (13 miles)
Saturday, Nov 17th – On arising this morning to prepare breakfast in camp at Smith Ranch.  We were unable to locate to locate the horses.  Went out to main road and located their tracks heading back way we had come.  Charlie and I went after them and found all 11 miles from camp.  Got them back by noon.  Broke camp at 2.  arrived Birdtown at 4:30.  Went into camp.  Weather fair, roads rough (8 miles)
Sunday, Nov 18th – Broke camp at 9.  Crossed cypress creek in the forenoon.  Ate dinner 11 miles from camp.  Crossed Pertenallis creek at 5.  Went into camp ½ mile from creek.  Weather fair.  (17 miles) 
Monday, Nov 19th – Broke camp at 9.  Ate dinner 11 miles from camp.  Went 4 miles farther and made camp for the night on a farm 8 miles from Oatmanville.  Weather fair, roads rough.  (15 miles)
Tuesday, Nov 20th – Broke camp at 9.  Arrived at Oatmanville at 11;30.  Ate dinner one mile from the town.  Arrived at Austin, the state’s capital, at 5.  Went into camp on the banks of the Colorado River.  Went uptown and got the mail, including dad’s pension check.  Weather fair, roads rough .  (15 miles)
Wednesday, Nov 21st – Layed over in Austin to rest up the horses and get some blacksmithing done.  West up to the capitol building and went all thru it.   It is the 7th largest building in the world, measuring 114 feet from the base to the dome and cost $5,000,000 to construct.  By far the largest state capitol building in the U.S.  Weather was warm.   Estimated population of Austin today, 25,000.  A large wagon bridge located here across the Colorado river.
Thursday, Nov 22nd – Still in camp at Austin.  Will start early tomorrow morning for  Lockhart.  Weather warm and clear.  Have had a nice rest up here and enjoyed the scenes in and around the Texas state capitol.  Our total mileage up to date figures us 1,132 miles.
Friday, Nov 23rd – Broke camp at Austin at 9.  Passed thru the towne of St. Elmo, Carl and Creadmore.  Ate dinner 10 miles from Austin.  Went into camp for the night one mile from Creadmore.  Weather cool and cloudy.  Roads fine.  (19 miles)
Saturday, November 24th – Broke camp at 9.  Arrived at Mendoza at 10:30.  Ate dinner 9 miles from camp.  Arrived at Lockhart at 5 and went into camp on the creek (no name).  Weather fair, roads rough in places.  (15 miles)
Sunday, Nov 25th – Broke camp at Lockhart at 9:45. Ate dinner on Mr.  Callahan’s farm on Plum Creek before noon.  Concluded to stay here the rest of the day and all of tomorrow and get the washing out.  Weather warm, roads good.  (7 miles)
Monday, Nov 26th – Resting in camp today to do the family wash.  Nicely located our camp is on Plum Creek.  Plenty of good water and feed.  Weather warm and cloudy.  Total distance traveled to date 1173 miles.
Tuesday, Nov 27th – Broke camp on Plum Creek at 9.  Ate dinner 8 miles from camp.  Arrived at the public tank at 5:30 and went into camp.  Weather warm, roads very sandy.  Hard going and making slow time.  (12 miles)
Wednesday, Nov 28th – Broke camp at 9:45.  Arrivevd in Harwood at 11:30.  Ate dinner 3 miles from Harwood.  Went into camp on Smith’s Creek on Mr.  Johnson’s farm.  Spent a very enjoyable evening at their home.  Weather fine, roads sandy.  (10 miles)
Thursday, Nov 29th – Thanksgiving day, but no pumpkin pies?  Broke camp on Johnson’s Farm at 9:15.  Arrived at Gonzales at 11.  Had two of our horses shod.  Went into camp for the night on the banks of the Guadaloupe River, one mile from Gonzales.  Expect to stop here for awhile and make future arrangements for the trip.  Weather warm, roads good. (16 miles)
Friday, Nov 30th – Broke camp at 9 and went up to  Mr. Pullen’s place to pick cotton and rest up the horses.  They have had about 10 days now of tough and sandy roads which took some flesh off them.  Picked cotton in the afternoon until rain stopped us.  Picked (all of us) 161 lbs cotton.  Chester fell out of a pecan tree near the camp and hurt his back.  Weather cloudy and rainy damp.
Saturday, Dec 1st – Picked 260 lb cotton.  Weather warm and rainy.
Sunday, Dec 2nd – Seems queer not to be breaking camp as we have for so many weeks.  Weather today, no change.  Warm and some rain.  No work today (Sunday).  Rested up.
Monday, Dec 3rd – Picked 203 lbs cotton.  Weather cloudy and wet.
Tuesday, Dec 4th -  Picked 308 lbs cotton.  Weather very cold and bad.
Wednesday, Dec 5th – Went uptown and got some supplies.  Our dear mother’s birthday today, 43 years old.   Picked 326 lbs. cotton.
Thursday, Dec 6th – Picked 460 lbs cotton.  Weather cool and cloudy.  Went on a big coon hunt, but no coons.  Killed 3 opossum and 2 civet cats.
Friday, Dec 7th -  Picked 336 lbs cotton.  Weather warm and cloudy.  Our pile of cotton caught fire, but we put it out before any damage was done.  Moved the cotton away from the house that night.
Saturday, Dec 8th- We had all of our cotton hauled uptown, amounting in all to about 2000 lbs.  Concluded not to pick any more cotton, but to start for Velasco via Halletsville after another day’s rest here at Pullen’s on the Guadalupe River in Gonzales.  
Sunday, Dec 8th – Mother and Dad’s 25th wedding anniversary.  Rested up today and gathered pecans.  Went to bed early, prepared to start early tomorrow morning.  Weather cool and clear. 
Monday, Dec 10th – Broke camp at 10:30 (late start) at Pullen’s farm (our home since Nov 29th, 1894).  Arrived in gonzales at noon and settled up for the cotton picking.  Ate dinner 6 miles from town.  Reached Peach Creek at 5.  went 1/2mile and went into camp for the night.  Weather clear, roads sandy.  (11 miles)
Tuesday, Dec 11th – Broke camp at 9.  Arrived at shiner at 1.  ate dinner on rock Creek below town.  Went into camp in Mrs. McGraw’s pasture.  Weather cold and clear.  Roads good (19 miles)
Wednesday, Dec 12th – Broke camp at 9:15.  Crossed Rock Creek,  Pantaras Creek and Lavacca Creek.  Arrived at Halletsville 12:00.  Ate dinner one mile south of town.  Went into camp in a sandy post oak country.  Roads sandy and hard.  Deep ruts in road. (14 miles)

Thursday, Dec 13th – Broke camp south of Halletsville at 8:15.  Arrived at Vienna on the Navidad Creek at noon.  Went two miles from there and ate dinner.  Arrived at the town of Seclusion at 5 and went into camp.  Weather fair.  Roads very sandy.  (13 miles)
Friday, Dec 14th – Broke camp at Seclusion at 9.  Arrived at Boxville at 11.  Crossed the Navidad Creek before reaching Boxville.  Arrived at the Golden Rod Prairie’s before noon.  Ate dinner 3 miles from the town.  Went into camp on the Golden Rod Creek.  Weather clear.  (15 miles)
Saturday, Dec 15th – Broke camp on Golden Rod Creek at 9:15.  Crossed Sandy Creek at 10.  Crossed West Mustang Creek at noon.  Ate dinner 2 miles from the creek.  Crossed Palmetto Creek and East Mustang Creek in the afternoon (plenty water in this country).  Went into camp in a lane one mile from El Campo.  Roads fine, weather clear.  (24 miles) 
Sunday, Dec 16th – Broke camp near El Campo at 9:30.  Passed through El Campo at 9:50.  ate dinner near a railway station on I & G. N/ Ry.  Arrived at the Colorado River one half mile from Wharton and went into camp.  Weather fine, roads good. (13 miles)
Monday, Dec 17th – Layed over half day at Wharton.  Broke camp at 2.  Went into camp at a waterhole near Caney Creek.  Weather fine, roads good.  Arrived on the Gulf prairies today.(11 miles)
Tuesday, Dec 18th  good– Broke camp at Caney Creek.  Ate dinner near an old slough.  Went into camp 4 miles from Mathews store.  Weather fair, roads good.  Killed one wild goose and one prairie chicken on the trip.  (15 miles)
Wednesday, Dec 19th – Broke camp at 9:30.  Arrived at Mr. Mathews place at 11.  Got stuck in the mud, delayed about one hour.  Ate dinner on the west bank of Caney Creek.  Went into camp on Buckhorn Prairie or Buckner, near a windmill.  Weather fair, roads hard and rough.  (11 miles)
Thursday, Dec 20th – Broke camp at 8:30.  Arrived at Hawkins plantation at noon.  Crossed Caney Creek. Which was tide water, salty.  Ate dinner one mile from Caney Creek.  Arrived at Cedar Lake at 4:30.  Went into camp 3 miles from the lake on an old bayou.  Weather fair, roads rough.  (18 miles)
Friday, Dec 21, 1894 – Broke camp at 9:15.  Arrived at the San Bernard River at 10:30.  Ate dinner in a large pasture 7 miles from camp.  Arrived at VELASCO TEXAS on the banks of the Brazos River at 5.  Weather good, roads muddy and rough. (15 miles)  This completing our long and memorable journey of 1380 miles.